Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger

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Determined the constitutionality of affirmative action programs in publicly-funded schools and universities.

Full Case Title: 

Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306 (2003) and Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 (2003)
  • Equal Educational Opportunities


  • Racial Justice
  • International Human Rights
  • Authored Amicus Brief


Our Role in the Case

Legal Momentum's amicus brief argued that the United States' international treaty obligations and international jurisprudence provide additional support for finding that the university's interest in giving attention to race, among other criteria, in selecting students is "compelling," and therefore permitted by the Constitution.


In Grutter v. Bollinger, the Supreme Court upheld the affirmative action program embodied in the University of Michigan Law School's admissions policy. In Gratz v. Bollinger, the Supreme Court struck down the affirmative action mechanism used by the University's undergraduate admissions policy